Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Liner Shipping

AN INTRODUCTION TO LINER SHIPPING BUSINESS NATURE AND SCOPE OF LINER SHIPPING BUSINESS: LINER SHIPPING BUSINESS A BRIEF HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE OF SHIPPING THE MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF LINER SERVICE THE MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF TRAMP SERVICE TYPES OF LINER SERVICE OPERATORS THE IMPORTANCE & NEED FOR LINER SERVICE LINER TRADE ROUTES A BRIEF HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE OF SHIPPING:The spirit of enquiry – looking beyond the forests, mountains, deserts & oceans. The era of explorations European expeditions Discovery of the Americas The Suez and Panama canals and other canals/waterways changed the course of shippingIndustrial Revolution Increase in trade Newer markets and opportunities Large-scale shipping lines only became widespread in the nineteenth century, after the development of the steamship in 1783. Great Britain was the center of development of the shipping line. In 1819 the first steamship crossing of the Atlantic Ocean took place. By 1833 shipping lines had begun to operate ste amships between Britain and British Empire possessions such as India and Canada. Three major British shipping lines were founded in the 1830s: The British and American Steam Navigation Company.The Great Western Steamship Company The Peninsular Steam Navigation Company.HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE1. Evolution of Shipping as an industry that arose from man’s quest for seeking new frontiers and later on played a major role in world trade.2. Growth of markets from local to neighbouring settlements / villages / towns/cities/countries and continents across the oceans in the 18th century. Seafaring communities could be found all over the world, the Egyptians, the Phoenicians, the Greeks, the Romans, the Norwegians, the British, the Dutch, the Portuguese, the Chinese, the Indians and many more.3. Discovery of new continents: The Americas and routes to various countries. The major man-made alterations in the geographic landscape that change the world. The Panama canal connected the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans while the Suez canal connected the Mediterranean sea in Europe and the Red Sea in Asia.4. Industrial Revolution and the invention of the steam engine caused a major shift in the way ships operated – wind powered to steam powered. The trade routes moved from being guided by wind and ocean currents to routes chartered by man to countries and continents around the globe.5. The inter-dependence of people and their produce and the role of ship owners and merchants in the development of new markets overseas.6. The advent of Tramp and Liner Shipping Business as the demands of the merchants and trading community grew during the 19th and 20th to have regular service to destination of their choice that was dependable, reliable, fixed route and timeframe to meet the requirements of their overseas customer.Characteristics of Liner Shipping Tramp* vs Liner Shipping* Dictionary Meaning – vagrant, homeless, vagabondTramp service is driven by demands of the mer chant in carrying goods in large quantities to specified location, does not have a fixed schedule or tariff in the sense that the freight rates are negotiable per voyage, Whereas Liner Shipping is driven by demands of the merchant in carrying goods in smaller quantities, that is unitized or break-bulk, on a specified route, operating with a regular schedule, to pre-advertised ports of call and fixed tariff.Types of Liner Service:   Break-bulk – lumber, wood-chips, liquids, grains, crude-oil, over dimension cargo. ? Container or cellular vessel – Containers Roll-on/Roll-off vessel – to carry fully built motor vehicles of all shapes & sizes ? LASH (lighter* aboard ship) or Kangaroo ships, lighter transport ships ? Passenger/Luxury Cruise Liner – ferrying people on work or leisure†¢ A lighter is a gearless barge or a small vessel that can carry cargo along rivers waterways to the sea and then can be loaded onto the mother vessel in the port.The Classi fication of Service Pattern:1. The Feeder service2. RTW or round-the-world3. The Pendulum Service4. Hub and Spoke5. End-to-endReview questions:1. Explain the path of change the sea-borne trade has undergone to reach it present level. Also indicate the factors that influenced the growth of sea-borne trade.2. What is Tramp service?3. Identify the main characteristics of Liner Service4. Draw a comparision between Tramp and Liner Service5. Identify the various types of Liner Service6. How are the Liner Service pattern classified explain.THE MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF TRAMP SERVICENo fixed schedule – the ship calls at ports â€Å"subject to inducement†. Serves customers with large shipments Eg. Ore, coal steel, crude oil, food grains, fertilizers – full shiploads Freight rates are negotiable – No Tariff On a charter – voyage, time or bareboatTHE MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF LINER SERVICE:A fleet of ships sailing between pre-advertised port that call at the port s en-route to load/discharge cargo. Maintain a fixed schedule. Offer cargo space to customers irrespective of volume CY/FCL : Full container OR CFS/LCL : Less-than-container load Carry general cargo and/or unitized cargo in ISO containers A pre-deterimined Tariff structure based on port-pair & commodity. Large organisation structure –network of office/agents Specified Port rotation for example: Bangkok-Laem Chabang-Ho Chi Minh City-Singapore- Chennai-Singapore–Laem Chabang-Bangkok Fixed schedule:BKK: Sat/Sun LCB: Mon/Mon VICT: Wed/Wed Cat lai: Wed/Thur SIN: Fri/SatMAA: Thur/Fri SIN : Wed/ThursLCB: Sat/SatBKK: Sat/SunROLL-ON/ROLL-OFF LINER SERVICE – HISTORY: At first, wheeled vehicles carried as cargo on ocean going ships were treated like any other cargo. Automobiles had their gas tanks emptied and their batteries disconnected before being hoisted into the ship’s hold, where they were chocked and secured. This process was tedious and difficult, vehicles w ere subject to damage, and could not be used for routine travel. Landing craft during World War II: Post war, the idea was adopted for merchant ships and short ferry crossings.The first RoRo service crossing the English channel began from Dover (Dover is a town and major ferry port in the county of Kent, in South East England. ) It faces France across the narrowest part of the English Channel†¦. TYPES of Roll on Roll off vessels: ROPAX The acronym ROPAX (roll on/roll off passenger) describes a RORO A ferry is a form of transport, usually a boat or ship, used to carry passengers and their vehicles across a body of water. Ferries are also used to transport freight and even railroad cars †¦. vessel built for freight vehicle transport but also with passenger accommodation.The ConRo vessel is a hybrid between a RORO and a container ship. A RoLo (roll-on lift-off) vessel is another hybrid vessel type with ramps serving vehicle decks but with other cargo decks accessible only by crane. Roll-on/roll-off (Roll on/Roll off) Ships were designed to carry wheeled cargo PCTC – Pure car- carriers or Pure Car /Truck Carriers: While the characteristics of seagoing RORO car ferries have inherent risks, there are benefits to its seaworthiness. For example the car carrier Cougar Ace The Motor ship Cougar Ace is a Singapore-flagged roll-on/roll-off car carrier vessel.The Cougar Ace was built by Kanasashi Co. of Toyohashi, Aichi and launched in June 1993†¦. listed 80 degrees to its port side in 2006 but did not sink, since its high enclosed sides prevented water from entering. Unlike in the shipping industry where cargo is measured by the metric tonne, RORO cargo is typically measured unit of LIM â€Å"lanes in metres†. This is calculated by multiplying cargo length in metres by its width in lanes (lane width differs from vessel to vessel and there are a number of industry standards). Aboard PCCs cargo capacity is measured in RT or RT 43 units which is based on a 1966 Toyota or by car equivalent units (CEU).THE ERA OF CONTAINERIZATION:As the progress was made in terms of unitization of the goods that is packaging the goods in a suitable manner for proper stowage and safe carriage during a shipment from one country to another the simple box, case, crate, cask or drums, pallets, skids and vans slowly evolved the concept of containerization – container made of steel or aluminum that would make handling of cargo easier. Definition: Containerization is a method of distributing merchandise in a unitized form thereby permitting an intermodal transport system to be developed providing a possible combination of rail, road, canal and maritime transport.For as long as people have been sailing the oceans they have been trading with other countries. The great empires of the world, from the Egyptians to the British Empire, were all built on ocean trade. As far back as 1792, boxes similar to modern containers emerged in England and these were transported with horse and wagon and later moved via rail. The U. S. government used containers during the Second World War.Modern container shipping began in 1956, when Malcolm McLean, a trucking entrepreneur from North Carolina, U. S. bought a steamship company with the idea of transporting entire truck trailers with their cargo still inside. Various companies in the U. S. began to adopt containerisation. In 1966, the vessel Fairland owned by Sea-Land sailed from the U. S. to Rotterdam in the Netherlands with 256 containers. This was the first international voyage of a container ship. During the 1970s container shipping expanded dramatically and ports were established in every continent in the world. This was the beginning of the expansion that made container shipping the backbone of global trade.Transporting goods in large volumes makes it cheaper – ‘economies of scale’ improved and therefore the unit cost of the products became more competitive. Transpor ting goods by container ship is also better for the environment. It is estimated that on average a container ship emits around 40 times less CO2 than a large freight aircraft and three times less than a heavy truck. Container shipping is also estimated to be two and a half times more energy efficient than rail and 7 times more so than road. Container shipping is different from conventional shipping because it uses ‘containers’ of various sizes – 20 foot (6. 9 m), 40 foot (12. 18 m) , 45 foot (13. 7 m), 48 foot (14. 6 m), and 53 foot (16. 15 m) – to load, transport, and unload goods DEVELOPMENT OF SUITABLE INFRASTRUCTURE: The introduction of containers in shipping also saw the development of infrastructure at the port and the container yards that was required to handle the containers safely with the cargo. A container crane (also container handling gantry crane, ship-to-shore crane ) is a design of large dockside gantry cranes found at container terminals f or loading and unloading intermodal containers from container ships.The first use of a container crane was constructed by Paceco Corp. for Matson (a marine terminal in Alameda, CA) in the early 1960s and was called a Portainer. Container cranes consistent of a supporting framework that can traverse the length of a quay or yard, and a moving platform called a â€Å"spreader†. The spreader can be lowered down on top of a container and locks on to the container's four locking points (â€Å"corner castings†), using a â€Å"twist lock† mechanism. Cranes normally transport a single container at once, however some newer cranes have the capability to up pick upto four 20†² containers at once.A fully maneuverable version not using rails is a rubber tyred gantry crane Containers are generally referred to in terms of TEU â€Å"Twenty foot equivalent† while the standard size of containers that exist in shipping are for further details the students may refer to t he container specifications distributed: CONTAINER TYPES: DRY FREIGHT CONTAINERS INSULATED CONTAINERS REFRIGERATED CONTAINERS BULK CONTAINERS VENTILATED CONTAINERS FLAT RACK & PLATFORM CONTAINERS OPEN-TOP CONTAINERS TANKS CONTAINERS SEA CELL CONTAINERS MILITARY CONTAINERS SWAPBODIES HANGER CONTAINERS

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Anorexia Nervosa Among Adolescent Females Primacy,...

Anorexia Nervosa Among Adolescent Females: Primacy, Causation, and Treatment UIN: 657124582 Psychology 270, Fall/2014 – Instructor Professor K. Reyes University of Illinois at Chicago Abstract Anorexia nervosa is a deadly eating disorder that has been an increasing problem over recent years for this generation, especially in adolescent females. Since almost everyone can access the media whenever and wherever they want, our society has been constantly shown images that have shaped our standards of beauty in which we then pass down to adolescents. In a society where mass media is so easily accessible, it s not hard to see why images of extremely thin models can have a major impact on the minds of adolescent females who want to be accepted. Though the causes may be hard to change or impact, there are many possible treatments for those with anorexia nervosa ranging from psychological, biological, social and many other different treatments that target key components of this disorder in order to help those in need. Introduction Eating disorders among female adolescents in America have been well documented. Identified by abnormal eating and a fixation on one s body, it is an increasing problem for young adolescent females growing up in today s society. As of 2013, about ninety percent of people diagnosed with an eating disorder were females. Anorexia nervosa is one of the biggest eating disorders among female adolescents. According to the National

Monday, December 30, 2019

How to Use the Command Line to Run Ruby Scripts

Before really starting to use Ruby, you need to have a basic understanding of the command line. Since most Ruby scripts wont have graphical user interfaces, youll be running them from the command line. Thus, youll need to know, at the very least, how to navigate the directory structure and how to use pipe characters (such as |,   and ) to redirect input and output. The commands in this tutorial are the same on Windows, Linux, and OS X. To start a command prompt on Windows, go to Start - Run. In the dialog that appears, enter cmd into the input box and press OK.To start a command prompt on Ubuntu Linux, go to Applications - Accessories - Terminal.To start a command prompt on OS X, go to Applications - Utilities - Terminal. Once youre at the command line, youll be presented with a prompt. Its often a single character such as $ or #. The prompt may also contain more information, such as your username or your current directory. To enter a command  all you need to do is type in the command and hit the enter key. The first command to learn is the cd command, which will be used to get to the directory where you keep your Ruby files. The command below will change directory to the \scripts directory. Note that on Windows systems, the backslash character is used to delimit directories but on Linux and OS X, the forward slash character is used. Running Ruby Scripts Now that you know how to navigate to your Ruby scripts (or your rb files), its time to run them. Open your text editor and save the following program as  test.rb. #!/usr/bin/env ruby    print What is your name? name gets.chomp puts Hello #{name}! Open a command line window and navigate to your Ruby scripts directory using the  cd  command. Once there, you can list files, using the  dir  command on Windows or the  ls  command on Linux or OS X. Your Ruby files will all have the .rb file extension. To run the test.rb Ruby script, run the command  ruby test.rb. The script should ask you for your name and greet you. Alternatively, you can configure your script to run without using the Ruby command. On Windows, the  one-click installer  already set up a file association with the .rb file extension. Simply running the command  test.rb  will run the script. In Linux and OS X, for scripts to run automatically, two things must be in place: a shebang line and the file being marked as executable. The shebang line is already done for you; its the first line in the script starting with  #!. This tells the shell what type of file this is. In this case, its a Ruby file to be executed with the Ruby interpreter. To mark the file as executable, run the command  chmod x test.rb. This will set a file permission bit indicating that the file is a program and that it can be run. Now, to run the program, simply enter the command  ./test.rb. Whether you invoke the Ruby interpreter manually with the Ruby command or run the Ruby script directly is up to you. Functionally, they are the same thing. Use whichever method you feel most comfortable with. Using Pipe Characters Using the pipe characters is an important skill to master, as these characters will alter the input or output of a Ruby script. In this example, the  Ã‚  character is used to redirect the output of test.rb to  a text file  called test.txt instead of printing to the screen. If you open new test.txt file after you run the script, youll see the output of the test.rb Ruby script. Knowing how to save output to a .txt file can be very useful. It allows you to save program output for careful examination or to be used as input to another script at a later time. C:\scriptsruby example.rb test.txt Similarly, by using the  Ã‚  character instead of the  Ã‚  character you can redirect any input a Ruby script may read from the keyboard to read from a .txt file. Its helpful to think of these two characters as funnels; youre funneling output to files and input from files. C:\scriptsruby example.rb Then theres the pipe character,  |. This character will funnel the output from one script to the input of another script. Its the equivalent of funneling the output of a script to a file, then funneling the input of a second script from that file. It just shortens the process. The  |  character is useful in creating filter type programs, where one script generates unformatted output and another script formats the output to the desired format. Then the second script could be changed or replaced entirely without having to modify the first script at all. C:\scriptsruby example1.rb | ruby example2.rb The Interactive Ruby Prompt One of the great things about Ruby is that its test-driven. The interactive Ruby prompt provides an interface to the Ruby language for instant experimentation. This comes in handy while learning Ruby and experimenting with things like regular expressions. Ruby statements can be run and the output and return values can be examined immediately. If you make a mistake, you can go back and edit your previous Ruby statements to correct those mistakes. To start the IRB prompt, open your command-line and run the  irb  command. Youll be presented with the following prompt: irb(main):001:0 Type the  hello world  statement weve been using into the prompt and hit Enter. Youll see any output the statement generated as well as the return value of the statement before being returned to the prompt. In this case, the statement output Hello world! and it returned  nil. irb(main):001:0 puts Hello world! Hello world! nilf irb(main):002:0 To run this command again, simply press the up key on your keyboard to get to the statement you previously ran and press the Enter key. If you want to edit the statement before running it again, press the left and right arrow keys to move the cursor to the correct place in the statement. Make your edits and press Enter to run the new command. Pressing up or down additional times will allow you to examine more of statements youve run. The interactive Ruby tool should be used throughout learning Ruby. When you learn about a new feature or just want to try something, start up the interactive Ruby prompt and try it. See what the  statement  returns, pass  different parameters  to it and just do some general experimenting. Trying something yourself and seeing what it does can be a lot more valuable than just reading about it!

Saturday, December 21, 2019

Fur Of The Fashion Industry - 1107 Words

Fur in the Fashion Industry What are the debates surrounding the use of animal furs in the fashion textile industry? When the learner was a little girl, she loved animal books and grew up reading the stories about Three Little Bears, Three Little Pigs, Little Red Riding Hood and fell in love with all these stories. Most notably there has always appeared to be a good guy and a villain and so as the learner grew she would always fight on the side of the underdog; with this in mind, the older the learner became her love for animals and fashion also grew by leaps and bounds. To date, the learner has started noticing how designers are using animals to make luxury coats, jackets, hats, gloves, shoes, and boots. Many animals are being killed and are being driven to extinction because of this outlandish idea to make fur products. In the learner’s opinion it is not necessary to use animal skins and furs to create fashions. How can the loss of an animals’ life to create a luxury product ever be ethica l? This paper will address research surrounding recent controversy in the use of fur in clothing, ethical implications, and the cruelty inflicted upon the animals by their captors. The debate surrounding the use of animal products within the fashion textiles industry has been a significant topic for a number of years; therefore, the line has been drawn in the sand and now more than ever it is important to choose the life of innocent animals over the mass production of theShow MoreRelatedToday, the fashion industry is pumping out thousands of fur coats for prospective buyers. The1700 Words   |  7 Pages Today, the fashion industry is pumping out thousands of fur coats for prospective buyers. The attempt of masking the true price of retrieving that fur by glamorizing coats is beyond most buyer’s attention. Some people know that animals go through pain when their fur is taken for the purpose of fashion, but most people do not understand the extent of the mutilation they go through. To be sure the fur is fresh and neat, certain animals are sometimes skinned alive. Fur farming is not only inhumaneRead MoreInfluence of the Fashion Industry Essay1451 Words   |  6 PagesSection A: INTRODUCTION Fashion industry is always the topic that draws attention of every people of us at anywhere and anytime. Everyone becomes so familiar with fashion that he or she thinks that fashion is just simply a fashionable and sophisticated style. However, life in a modern community is far more controlled by fashion industry than many people realize; it affects not only clothing, but almost every aspects of our daily life. When many people think of the fashion industry, they often think ofRead MoreEssay about Stop Killing for Fur Coats1679 Words   |  7 Pageswould make a good fur coat. And yet, many countries around the world think so. Wearing fur is a growing epidemic, which is frequently looked over. Due to fashion and profit, animals are subjected to lives of pure torture and eventually death. Most of the fur contained in fur coats and accessories comes from fur farms, which make up nearly 85% of the fur used (Coster). The other 15% comes from the world fur trade. In order to meet escalating demand, today’s $15 billion industry now relies on the massRead More Fur Is Dead Research Paper928 Words   |  4 Pageswondering.... â€Å"Fur is Dead† Taking a look into a once strong industry, shocking facts are revealed. The fur industry brings in an average of $1.5 billion in sales each year. Furs were considered a beautiful and feminine version of clothing by many women, until the public became aware of the horrors that accompany the industry. Activists have been a voice for animals tortured for their fur, making the public aware, and diminishing the old view of fur. Approximately 3.5 million fur-bearing animalsRead MoreBusiness plan DKNY978 Words   |  4 PagesDonna  Karan  New  York (DKNY) is a  label  founded by fashion designer  Donna Karan. Interested in fashion since she was very young and having designed numerous collections, Karan was hired by Anne Klein who launched her career in the fashion industry. Today, Karan has expanded her label worldwide. PETA  is an American  animal rights  organization and a non-profit corporation that claims to be the largest animal rights group in the world whose slogan is we’d rather go naked than wear fur.† In 2005, around 8 years ago, DKNYRead MoreFox Farming Speech : An Overview955 Words   |  4 Pagescordial to these creatures fleece, I think that we deserve to freeze.† This poetic quote by Marianne captures the view that I take upon the topic of fur farming. Some of you may ask, what is that? Well, fur farming is basically the manufacturing of fur coats, using the skin of millions of foxes, minks, and other furry creatures, that live on the fur farms. OK. Imagine yourself cramped in a cold and dark wire cage. No food, no water, living in this filthy place your whole life. For you, this is homeRead MoreFashion Throughout History965 Words   |  4 Pages​Throughout history, fashion has been the gateway for self-expression. With fashion, people have been able to highlight their culture, social class, and emotion. Through the passing of time alternative materials have surfaced to take the place of killing animals for fashion purposes. While animal rights groups such as People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) and Animal Liberation argue against the killing of animals for fashion, opposing views point to the personal, physical, and economicRead MoreA Look At Isaac Mizrahi And The Eccentric World He Represents. Crude And Lewd With Attitude1336 Words   |  6 Pageslewd with attitude: Unzipped offers a raw look into the fashion world as Isaac Mizrahi prepares for his fall 1994 comeback collection. Following a critically-detested season, Unzipped launches into the creation of Mizrahi’s new line. With shots ranging from Mizrahi in bed to his frequent interactions with industry icons, Unzipped offers an intensely intimate look into the unconventional and hilarious life of Mizrahi and the fashion industry: a world previously untapped successfully on film. Mizrahi’sRead MoreThe Increase Of Competition And Market Instability Of Luxury Fashion Brands1238 Words   |  5 PagesThe increase of competition and market instability in luxury fashion brands involves firm flexibility and adaptation to ever changing wants and needs of consumers. As consumers become more sophisticated, they want more than a product; they want a luxury product with a beautiful story behind it. Fendi was launched in 1925 as a fur and leather shop in Rome, it has since expanded into a multinational luxury goods brand owned by Louis Vuitton Moet Hennessy (LVMH). The current target market for FendiRead MoreAnalysis : Kirsi Frames That Sustainability Is Fuzzy And Wide Concept1620 Words   |  7 Pagescustomers and community groups. Anyhow, Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) can simply be defined as actions that companies take for overall social and environmental good without thinking of any advantages to the firms. When considering the fashion and textile industry, nowadays garments are manufactured in developing countries and then are exported. This initiative has enabled the economies of the developing countries such as the BRIC economies to develop over the last few years. But with this globalization

Friday, December 13, 2019

In Intermediate Accounting Free Essays

The well-known apparel brand Gap is owned by The Gap Inc., originally incorporated in California on July of 1969, and reincorporated in Delaware on May 1988.   Its stocks are traded in the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker name GPS. We will write a custom essay sample on In Intermediate Accounting or any similar topic only for you Order Now Other than the brand Gap, it operates other famous brands as well such as Old Navy, Banana Republic, Piperlime, and the now-discontinued Forthe Town.   These brands cater to different markets, offering different lines of products and prices. The Gap products are moderately priced, classically designed clothing line for casual use by men, women, and children of different ages.   These include basic clothing as jeans, slacks, and T-shirts, as well as maternity apparels.   It has its own line for children called GapKids and for babies aptly called BabyGap. Old Navy products likewise cater to different ages of men, women, and children but are relatively cheaper and innovative in styles and designs while Banana Republic products are the highest priced since it carries lines for the sophisticated market such as fashion and tailored apparels. The Gap Inc.’s latest fiscal year ends on February 03, 2007 which practically covers the business transactions of 2006.   the accounting period started on January 28, 2006, and may be considered irregular if viewed on the number of business days notwithstanding leap years. Further observation however reveals that The Gap Inc. uses a 52-week accounting period as the reckoning period and not the number of business days. One reason is that sales trend is analyzed using weekly figures.   The 52-week reckoning period is also in line with the employee wage payouts, mostly composed of sales attendants stationed in different stores and branches, and are usually paid on a weekly basis. IBM IBM, short for International Business Machines Corporation was originally incorporated in New York on 1911 using the name Computing-Tabulating-Recording Co. It changed to its present name on 1924 and from then on became a symbol of quality business machine products. It has now evolved to a â€Å"globally integrated innovation company† offering a wide range of products and services to its customers and clients alike.   Its business is now composed of three broad segments: Systems and Financing, Software, and Services.    Systems and Financing includes hardware products such as servers, data storage systems, microelectronics, printing systems, and retail store solutions.   An allied service, Financing covers commercial, client, and remarketing financing. Under the Software segment, IBM operates technical brands such as Information Management Software, Lotus, Tivoli, WebSphere and Product Lifecycle Management, performing specialized functions to help meet the software needs of clients.   Lastly, Services is perhaps the fastest growing segment of the company. Through this arm, IBM is engaged in business process outsourcing, consulting in different aspects of business, information technology set up, management, and maintenance.   Its personal computer segment, practically the single segment that brought IBM to world renowned brand name, was sold to Lenovo of China sometime in 2005. IBM follows the traditional accounting period, always starting on January 1 and ends on December 31, regardless of the number of weeks or business days on a given year. This is so because the company does not experience seasonal sales as with the Gap Inc. or any other retail firm where fashion and trends play a big part.   Due to the very nature of IBM’s products and services, the demand for such is largely dictated by development in technology and business practices, and can be said, at the least, unpredictable. This is magnified by the rapidity of technological advances in computers.   Thus, to best capture the trends of its business, the annual basis of reporting is used. How to cite In Intermediate Accounting, Papers

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Management Accounting Concepts and Applications

Question: Discuss about the Management Accounting forConcepts and Applications. Answer: Introduction: New Business Strategy Blue Moon, Pty Ltd. designs and produces sailing boats. It had excellent reputation but recently its profit and market share have started to decline due to new competitors entered into market. So, after evaluation of internal strengths and weakness Rob Inglis, the firms owner realize to implement new business strategy to survive in the market. It is required to understand organizational objectives and long term goals before implementation of new business strategy (Ward, 2012). By implementing new strategy Blue Moon wants to achieve business mission and competitive advantage also. The mission of business to attract customers and making more profits by changing in the following: Reduce actual range of sailing boats and increases selling price thus profit margin increases. Change in organizational culture. Change sub-contracting strategies. Change the job costing system. Change the approach to distribution. Improved boat design and develop new skills thus customers preferred their products. So, new business strategy helped Blue Moon to come over its present situation. Key Success Factors (KSF) Key success factors are the group or combination of adequate information that is required to complete one or more desirable business objectives. An example should be created to understand, one of the key success factors in promoting sales of boat products might be to change the design and techniques of manufacturing as per new aspects of demand. Customers and market defined to key success factors. It is not defined by company. Key success factors revolve around processes, skills and systems. (Lawrimore, 2011) When Blue Moons profits decline, Rob made market research to find the reasons. Research aimed at investigating the sales potential for boats designed to deliver higher performances in terms of speed and sailing experience. By evaluating opportunities and threats in the market and own strength and weakness, they implement new business strategy. They improve their product quality and reducing cost. Key Success factors of Blue Moon are: Technical Research and Development: The research revealed that there are significant opportunities. The research also revealed that the demand for low cost sailing boat will decline in the medium period to long term as the recent economic crisis is affecting to a large extent middle class families, thus decreasing their purchasing power. So research was main key success factor for Blue Moon to know customer wants and they improve their product accordingly. Innovative and High Quality Product: New clients want innovative and superior or high quality products with excellent and better customer service. Customers get satisfaction by receiving superior products in competitive market. Blue Moon changed the quality of their product thus customers preferred them in all available options in the market. Increasing Profitability: Reduce Blue Moons actual range of sailing boats by focusing on the best performing ones, increase selling prices and, therefore, improve profit margins. Earning profit is main organizational objective for all companies as well as of Blue Moon. So they reduce cost but increase selling price to earn more profits. Change in Distribution Approach: Customers want good distribution channel for saving time and money. Blue Moons reputation would depend on the ability of distribution department. They applied new strategy on distribution approach to save time and source of customers. Management Accounting System Management accounting system firstly collects financial data from operations of business and then converts the information into analysis report. Management Accounting is a process of decision making on the basis of financial and non-financial information. By adopting management accounting system, Blue Moon can achieve better position among the competitors. Blue Moon, Pty Ltd. is considering the below techniques and tools, it should include in its revised Management Accounting System (MAS). Following are the tools or techniques which should be included by Blue Moon in new MAS: Strategic planning Flexible Budget Allocation of Overhead Cost Analysis of Variance Analysis of Cost Volume Profit (CVP) Cost-Plus Pricing or Target Costing Techniques of Capital Budgeting Strategic Planning Strategic planning is a managerial process which is used by organizations to set their objectives and goals. It includes the following: SWOT analysis: SWOT analysis is basically based on four parts which tells about Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats about particular person, company or organization. Blue Moons owner, Rob firstly researches the market to know the threats and opportunities available in front of them. After then find organizational strength and weakness to focus on strengths and reduce weaknesses (Pahl Richter, 2009). The new competitors who guaranteeing for lower prices and shorter production time than Blue Moon, they were threats for Blue Moon and opportunity was that, performance of the boats produced by new competitors was inferor. Implementation of new strategy works as strength and declining profitability due to entrance of new on-line competitors was weakness of Blue Moon. The SWOT analysis can be applied to analyze strength and weakness of internal factors, and opportunities and threats of external factors. It helps to identify strengths, to reduce weaknesses and know about availa ble opportunities. Porters Five Forces Model: This model is given by Michael E. Porter to identify and analyze five competitive forces which give to shape every industry and structure of industry. It also helps to identify strengths and weaknesses of an industry (Hill Jones, 2009). (Source: Integrated Management 2006) Blue Moon can identify bargaining power of suppliers and buyers which help in decision making. They can find threats of new entrants, threats of substitutes and degree of rivalry which will be beneficial for management also. By this evaluation, they can improve their product performance. Value Chain Analysis: A firm has some internal activities which can be analyzed by the techniques of Value Chain Analysis. The primary purpose of value chain analysis is to identify that which is the most important and profitable activity to the business entity and which will be more valuable for the firm. Blue Moon can analyze and evaluate internal activities and could be improved if some changes required (Navy Johnstone, 2015). Flexible Budgeting: A flexible budget changes according to volume of activities. In compare to static budget, flexible budget is more valuable (Shim, Siegel Shim, 2011). Flexible budget is prepared in the end of financial year to evaluate the performance of the activities. Blue Moon can identify valuable performance by preparing flexible budget. Overhead Cost Allocation: Allocation of overheads is a process of allocate the overhead cost to a particular division or cost center. Blue Moon should be allocated overhead cost to the particular cost unit. If process of allocation of overhead cost is proper, it will help to find actual profits (Weil Maher, 2005). Variance Analysis: Variance analysis is the analysis to know the quantitative difference between actual and planned behavior. Blue Moon can control over business by variance analysis. Difference between budgeted output and actual output comes under the variance analysis. It helps to management of Blue Moon in reducing variance (Berger, 2011). CVP Analysis: CVP analysis refers to Cost Volume Profit analysis. Blue Moon can used to determine how change in cost and volume effects the profits of the organization. Assumptions taken during cost volume analysis which are: Selling price/unit, variable price/unit and total fixed cost remain unchanged (Rajasekaran Lalitha, 2010). Total revenue and the total cost (both fixed cost and variable cost) are same at the point of cost volume profit. It is also referred as breakeven point, where the situation of neither profit nor loss. Target Costing and Cost-Plus Pricing: Target costing is a technique to identify a cost of product life cycle. Blue Moon can set a target cost by eliminating a required profit margin from a competitive market price. It helps in determining the cost of product. Cost plus pricing is a method of cost to settle down the value of goods and services. By adding direct material cost, direct labor cost and overhead cost of a product and after that percentage for profit margin has been added so that the price of the product can be derived. Capital budgeting techniques: Capital budgeting is a forecasting process of capital invested. Organizations long term investments can be determined by this planning process (Albrecht, Stice, Stice Swain, 2007). Capital budgeting consists of various techniques which are presented below: Payback period: Blue Moon can be analyzed that how much time is required to recover the investment cost by it. Discounted payback period: It is helpful to calculate payback period in respect with time value of money. Net present value: Blue Moon can identify divergence between present value of cash inflows and present value of cash outflows by NPV. Accounting rate of return: Blue Moon can recognize individuals expectation for profit based on an investment made by them. Internal rate of return: The rate of return which is used to calculate profitability of investment. So it will be beneficial for Blue Moon to compute their profitability. Profitability index: Profitability index used to identify the relations between costs and benefits by calculated ratio. It is used for ranking projects. All the above techniques should be included by New Moon in its new management accounting system. These all techniques help in survival for long run and achieving organizational goals and objectives. References Albrecht, W., Stice, J., Stice, E. Swain, M. 2007. Accounting: Concepts and Applications. (e.d. 10): Cengage Learning Berger, A. 2011. Standard Costing, Variance Analysis and Decision-Making: GRIN Verlag Hill, C. Jones, G. 2009. Strategic Management Theory: An Integrated Approach. Cengage Learning Lawrimore, E. W. 2011. Strategic Management Theory: An Integrated Approach. Lulu.com Navy, H. Johnstone, R. 2015. Commodity and product identification for value chain analysis. World Fish Pahl, N. Richter, A. 2009. Swot Analysis - Idea, Methodology and a Practical Approach. GRIN Verlag Rajasekaran, V. Lalitha, R. 2010. Cost Accounting: Pearson Education India Shim, J. K., Siegel, J. G. Shim, A. I. 2011. Budgeting Basics and Beyond. (e.d. 4): John Wiley Sons Ward, K. 2012. Strategic Management Accounting. New york. Routledge Weil, R. L. Maher, M. W. 2005. Handbook of Cost Management.(e.d. 2): John Wiley Sons

Thursday, November 28, 2019

What is Accountability free essay sample

How Can I apply it to my daily life? (As a soldier in the U. S. Army) How can I apply it as a life skill or value to myself and others around me? To define Accountability, we must look at the very definition the word implies and its meaning. Historically the word â€Å"Accountability† stems from the Latin words accomptare (to account), a shortened form of the word computare (to calculate), which originated from the word putare (to reckon), as a combination of these three words, which founded the word in the English Language that we associate today that embodies these three meanings as one. As each of these qualities that this word represent, can often be applied to nearly every decision we make in our daily lives in the process of our job, or on our personal time. Accountability is a life skill, and it has many uses, as some examples would be with our finances, (keep a good record of how you spend your earnings) which would be financial responsibility, ethical accountability (very important in a workplace environment, basically by watching what you speak about others, and how you perform your job on a daily basis), and a last example physical accountability (keeping records of what has been tasked [or issued] for you as a person to keep in good-working order, and checking to make sure those item[s] in question are ready for use at any time). We will write a custom essay sample on What is Accountability? or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page This word and examples, go right in step with daily life in the U. S. Army, and coincide with the Seven Army Values. To further solidify this statement, some of these examples used will be applied in accordance with a familiar situation an individual may face as an employee in the U. S. Army. The situation is an individual is tasked with the duty of being present at a predetermined time (subject to change at a moment’s notice), and in the right uniform and equipment to continue the elements of training and skill progression. To be on time the individual must demonstrate ethical responsibility (by keeping current time and making sure to be present by that predetermined time), physical responsibility (by making sure Page 2 his/her uniform is clean and presentable, and the individual is in the correct uniform for the event, and lastly by showing accountability to his superiors by informing them of his current location before such event, and to contact them if anything transpires that will delay his arrival to said event. This also works in reverse, as his superiors are equally required as well to demonstrate these qualities. As said previously accountability is a life skill, and an Individual skill that every person must practice this daily.